Cyber Security what it is, definition and concepts
Cyber Security – is the practice of defending computers, servers, mobile devices, electronic systems, networks and data from malicious attacks. It is also known as information technology (ICT) security or electronic information security.
The term applies in a variety of contexts, from business to mobile computing, and can be broken down into a few common categories.
Network security is the practice of protecting a computer network from intruders, whether they are targeted attackers or opportunistic malware.
Application security aims to keep software and devices free from threats. A compromised application could provide access to the data it was designed to protect. Successful security begins at the design stage, well before a program or device is deployed.
Information security protects the integrity and confidentiality of data, both in storage and in transit.
Operational security includes the processes and decisions for managing and protecting data assets.
The permissions that users have when accessing a network and the procedures that determine how and where data can be stored or shared all fall under this umbrella.
Disaster recovery and business continuity and business continuity define how an organization responds to a cybersecurity incident or any other event that causes loss of operations or data.
Disaster recovery policies determine how the organization recovers operations and information to return to the same operational capacity as before the event. Business continuity is the plan that the organization falls back on while trying to operate without certain resources.
End-user education addresses the most unpredictable factor in cybersecurity: people. Anyone can accidentally introduce a virus into an otherwise secure system by not following good security practices.
Teaching users to delete suspicious email attachments, not plugging in unidentified USB drives, and various other important lessons is vital to any organization's security.
The global cyberthreat continues to evolve at a rapid pace, with an increasing number of data breaches each year.
A report from RiskBased Security revealed that a shocking 7.9 billion records were exposed due to data breaches in the first nine months of 2019 alone.
This figure is more than double (112%) the number of records exposed in the same period in 2018.
Online Security Technology and Hacking Risk Alert Concept.
Medical services, retailers, and government agencies suffered the most breaches, with malicious criminals responsible for the majority of incidents.
Some of these industries are more attractive to cybercriminals because they collect financial and medical data, but any business that uses networks can be targeted for customer data, corporate espionage, or customer attacks.
With the scale of the cyberthreat set to continue to grow, International Data Corporation projects that worldwide spending on cybersecurity solutions will reach a whopping $133.7 billion by 2022. Governments around the world have responded to the growing cyber threat with a guide to help organizations, implementing effective cyber security practices.
In the United States, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has created a cybersecurity framework. To combat the proliferation of malicious code and aid in early diagnosis, the framework recommends continuous, real-time monitoring of all electronic assets.
The importance of system monitoring is echoed in the "10 steps to cyber security", indications provided by the British government's National Cyber Security Center.
In Australia, the Australian Cyber Security Center (ACSC) regularly publishes guidance on how organizations can counter the latest cybersecurity threats.
The threats countered by cyber security are three:
Cybercrime includes individual actors or groups that target systems for financial gain or cause disruption.
Cyber attack often involves the collection of politically motivated information.
Cyberterrorism aims to undermine electronic systems to cause panic or fear.
So how do bad actors gain control of computer systems? Below are some common methods used to threaten cyber security:
Malware means malicious software.
One of the most common computer threats, malware is software that a cybercriminal or hacker has created to disrupt or harm a legitimate user's computer. Often spread via an unsolicited email attachment or legitimate-looking download, malware can be used by cybercriminals to make money or in politically motivated cyber-attacks.
There are several types of malware, including:
Virus: A self-replicating program that attaches itself to clean files and spreads throughout a computer system, infecting files with malicious code.
· Trojan: A type of malware masquerading as legitimate software. Cybercriminals trick users into uploading trojans to their computer where they cause damage or collect data.
· Spyware: A program that secretly records what a user does so that cybercriminals can use this information. For example, spyware could capture your credit card details.
Ransomware: Malware that locks down a user's files and data, with the threat of deleting them unless a ransom is paid.
· Adware: Advertising software that can be used to spread malware.
Botnets: Malware-infected networks of computers that cybercriminals use to perform online activities without your permission.
A SQL injection (structured language query) is a type of cyber attack used to take over and steal data from a database.
Cybercriminals exploit vulnerabilities in data-driven applications to insert malicious code into a database via a malicious SQL statement. This allows them to access sensitive information contained in the database.
Phishing occurs when cybercriminals target victims with emails that appear to be from a legitimate business requesting sensitive information.
Phishing attacks are often used to trick people into handing over credit card information and other personal information.
A man-in-the-middle attack is a type of cyber threat in which a cybercriminal intercepts communication between two individuals to steal data.
For example, on an insecure WiFi network, an attacker could intercept data transmitted by the victim's device and network.
Denial of Service attack
A denial-of-service attack occurs when cybercriminals prevent a computer system from fulfilling legitimate requests by overloading networks and servers with traffic. This renders the system unusable, preventing an organization from performing vital functions.
The latest cyber threats
What are the latest cyber threats that individuals and organizations need to protect themselves from? Here are some of the most recent cyber threats reported by the governments of the UK, US and Australia.
End user protection or endpoint security is a crucial aspect of cyber security. After all, it is often an individual (the end user) who accidentally uploads malware or another form of cyber threat to their desktop, laptop or mobile device.
So how do cyber security measures protect end users and systems?
First, cybersecurity relies on cryptographic protocols to encrypt emails, files, and other critical data. This not only secures information in transit, but also protects against loss or theft.
Additionally, end-user security software scans computers for pieces of malicious code, quarantines this code, and then removes it from the machine.
Security programs can even detect and remove malicious code hidden in the master boot record and are designed to encrypt or erase data from your computer's hard drive.
Electronic security protocols also focus on real-time malware detection. Many use heuristic and behavioral analysis to monitor the behavior of a program and its code to defend against viruses or Trojans that change shape with each execution (polymorphic and metamorphic malware).
Security programs can confine potentially harmful programs to a virtual bubble separate from a user's network to analyze their behavior and learn how to better detect new infections.
Security programs continue to develop new defenses as information security professionals identify new threats and new ways to combat them. To get the most out of end-user security software, employees need to be educated on how to use it.
Basically, keeping it running and updating it frequently ensures that it can protect users from the latest cyber threats.
How can companies and individuals protect themselves from cyber threats? Here are our top cybersecurity tips:
Update your software and operating system – this means you can benefit from the latest security patches.
Use antivirus software: Security solutions like Antivirus will detect and remove threats. Keep your software updated for the best level of protection, go to: Freeantivirus.pro
Use strong passwords: Make sure your passwords aren't easily guessed.
Do not open email attachments from unknown senders - they may be infected with malware.
Do not click links in emails from unknown senders or unknown websites - this is a common way malware is spread.
Avoid using insecure WiFi networks in public places: Insecure networks leave you vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks.
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